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Panel: Stephen Hawkings, Carl Sagan, and Arthur C. Clarke
This is a candid discussion between world renowned physicists and thinkers. Keep in mind that this was video taped sometime around 1988 when Hawking's book was first published and red-shift had yet to be confirmed by Hubble as it was not in orbit then. Despite the absence of seemingly essential components in scientific understanding, the idea that the universe is void of theistic explanation if not deity itself still remains. Carl Sagan's foreword to Hawking's book is exemplary, and by similar methods you will see how these minds are able to create the truer nature of our understanding of celestial bodies, as Laplace made clear, without any assumption of Godly intervention.